Back and Neck Pain

Back and neck pain are common medical conditions that affect the spinal region of the body. These pains can result from various factors, including muscle strain, poor posture, injury, or underlying medical conditions. Back pain typically occurs in the lower, middle, or upper back, while neck pain is centered around the cervical spine. Causes of back and neck pain may include muscle or ligament strains, herniated discs, osteoarthritis, spinal stenosis, and conditions like sciatica. Poor ergonomics, sedentary lifestyles, and obesity can contribute to these issues. Symptoms often include localized discomfort, stiffness, and sometimes radiating pain that may affect mobility. Treatment approaches vary and may include rest, physical therapy, pain medications, and in some cases, surgical interventions


Radiculopahty, commonly known as sciatica when affecting the sciatic nerve, is a medical condition characterized by pain, tingling, or weakness that radiates along the path of a nerve. This often occurs due to compression, inflammation, or injury to the spinal nerve roots. The sciatic nerve, the longest nerve in the body, extends from the lower back down through the buttocks and into each leg. Common causes of radiculopathy/sciatica include herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or bone spurs that put pressure on the nerve roots. Symptoms may include sharp pain, numbness, or tingling sensations along the affected nerve pathway, and sometimes weakness in the corresponding muscles. Speak with your physician about your sciatica concerns.

Disc Herniation

Disc herniation, also known as a slipped or herniated disc, is a condition that involves the displacement of the soft gel-like material inside an intervertebral disc in the spine. These discs act as cushions between vertebrae, providing flexibility and shock absorption. When a disc herniates, the outer layer may tear or weaken, allowing the inner material to protrude or leak out. This can lead to compression or irritation of nearby nerves, resulting in symptoms such as pain, numbness, or weakness in the affected area. Common causes of disc herniation include age-related degeneration, wear and tear, and sudden trauma. Symptoms vary based on the location of the herniation but often include localized pain, tingling, or radiating pain along the nerves affected.

Lumbar and Cervical Stenosis

This condition is the narrowing of the spinal canal in different regions of the spine, specifically the lower back, or lumbar region, or the neck, the cervical region. The narrowing can cause pain, weakness, and difficulty with certain movements. Consultation and testing are needed to diagnose this condition and treatment options.

Degenerative Disc Disease

This condition usally occurs due to aging. Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD), also known as Spondylosis, is the progressive deterioration of the discs between the vertebral bodies. Spondylosis is typically a degenerative condition of the joints of the spine and is also known as spinal osteoarthritis. The discs, joints, and ligaments of the spine are generally involved. With DDD, discs lose their cushioning effect between the spinal bones, the ligaments become weaker or thicken, and the bones can develop bony growths or spurs. Aging and repetitive stresses to the spine are the primary causes of this degeneration.


Myelopathy is a term used for compression of the spinal cord. The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs through the vertebral column (spine) and plays a crucial role in transmitting signals between the brain and the rest of the body. When the spinal cord is affected, it can lead to various symptoms and functional impairments. Myelopathy happens when something presses against the spinal cord in one of two instances: Compression myelopathy occurs when there is physical pressure on the spinal cord. Common causes include herniated discs, spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal), tumors, or trauma. The pressure on the spinal cord can interfere with the normal transmission of signals, leading to symptoms. Non-compressive myelopathy: Occurrence without significant spinal cord compression. This may be due to conditions like multiple sclerosis, vascular disorders, or inflammatory diseases, where the spinal cord is affected by factors other than direct compression.


Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disorder characterized by the breakdown of cartilage, the protective tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint. Aging, genetics, joint overuse, and joint injuries lead to wear and tear and the gradual deterioration of cartilage. This condition commonly affects weight-bearing joints such as the knees, hips, and spine, as well as joints in the hands. Your physician can discuss treatment and therapy options with you.

Adult Deformity

Adult deformity of the back refers to abnormal curvature or misalignment of the spine in individuals who have reached adulthood. This condition can result from various causes and often leads to changes in the spine's natural curvature, affecting posture and spinal function.


This medical condition characterized by an abnormal sideways curvature of the spine. Instead of the spine being straight, it curves to the side, resembling an "S" or "C" shape. This condition can develop at any age, but it often appears during adolescence. The degree of curvature can vary, and in some cases, scoliosis may not cause noticeable symptoms. However, more severe cases can lead to pain, discomfort, and, in rare instances, impact organ function. Treatment options include observation, bracing, and surgery, with the chosen approach depending on factors such as the degree of curvature, the age of the individual, and the presence of symptoms. Regular monitoring and early intervention are crucial for managing scoliosis effectively.

Spinal Instability (Spondylolisthesis)

This medical condition that occurs when a vertebra (one of the small bones that make up the spine) slips out of its normal position and moves forward or backward relative to the adjacent vertebrae. This displacement can lead to compression of spinal nerves and result in pain, weakness, or numbness in the legs. Spondylolisthesis or spine instability can develop due to various causes, such as degenerative changes in the spine, fractures, or genetic factors. The severity of symptoms varies, and treatment options range from conservative approaches, including physical therapy and pain management, to surgical interventions in more severe cases. Regular medical evaluation and appropriate management are important in addressing spondylolisthesis.

Sacroiliitis (SI Joint Pain)

Inflammation of the sacroiliac joints, which connect the sacrum (the triangular bone at the base of the spine) to the ilium (the pelvic bone). This inflammation can lead to pain and discomfort in the lower back and buttocks. Sacroiliitis can be caused by various factors, including inflammatory arthritis, infection, injury, or pregnancy-related stress on the joints. Symptoms often include pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility in the lower back and hips. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, medical history, imaging studies, and sometimes blood tests. Treatment options may include medications to reduce inflammation and pain, physical therapy, and in some cases, injections. Managing the underlying cause and addressing symptoms are key aspects of treating sacroiliitis.

Vertebral Fractures

Vertebral fractures refer to breaks or cracks in the vertebrae, the small bones that make up the spine. These fractures can occur due to various causes, including trauma, osteoporosis (a condition causing weakened bones), or certain medical conditions. The symptoms of vertebral fractures may include back pain, limited mobility, and, in severe cases, spinal deformities. Diagnosis involves medical imaging, such as X-rays or MRIs, to visualize the extent and location of the fracture. Treatment options depend on the severity and cause of the fracture, and may include rest, pain management, bracing, and sometimes surgery to stabilize the spine.

Spinal Tumors

Spinal tumors are abnormal growths of tissue that develop within the spinal cord or the bones of the spine. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They may originate in the spine (primary tumors) or spread to the spine from other parts of the body (secondary or metastatic tumors). Symptoms of spinal tumors can include back pain, weakness, numbness, and problems with coordination or bowel/bladder function. Diagnosis involves imaging studies such as MRIs or CT scans, and sometimes a biopsy to determine the type of tumor. Treatment options will be discussed after diagnosis.

Spinal Infections

Bacteria, viruses, or fungi, in the spinal tissues or the spinal fluid. These infections can occur in various parts of the spine, including the spinal cord, vertebrae, and surrounding tissues. Common causes include bacterial or fungal contamination from nearby tissues or through the bloodstream. Symptoms may include localized pain, fever, stiffness, neurological deficits, and, in severe cases, spinal instability. Diagnosis involves imaging studies like MRIs or CT scans and sometimes laboratory tests on spinal fluid obtained through a lumbar puncture. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, antiviral medications, or antifungal drugs, depending on the specific case. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses, remove infected tissues, or stabilize the spine. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent complications and preserve spinal function.

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